Urology Dictionary

A Comprehensive List of Urology Terms

Albuminuria – A higher than normal volume of a protein called albumin in the urine, sometimes a symptom of kidney disease.

Androgens – Male sexual hormones.

Anejaculation – Failure to ejaculate.

Anuria – A condition in which the kidneys stop producing urine.

Aspermia – The absence of semen.

Asthenozoospermia – When sperm cells have limited mobility, a possible cause of infertility.

Azoospermia – The absence of sperm in the ejaculate.

Balloon Dilation – A tiny balloon is inflated inside the urethra to improve urine flow. For treating benign prostatic hyperplasia or prostate enlargement.

Corpus Cavernosum – The region of the penis which contains blood flow during erection.

Cystine Stone – A rare type of kidney stone made up of an amino acid known as cystine.

Cystinuria – High levels of cystine in the urine which can build up to form kidney stones.

Cystitis – An inflammation of the bladder causing pain in the pelvis or urethra.

Ductus Deferens – The duct which connects the testes and prostate gland.

Endoscope – A thin tube inserted to allow close inspection of internal organs such as the kidney, ureter or bladder.

Enuresis – Urinary incontinence not related to any apparent physical disorder.

Erectile Dysfunction – Difficulty attaining or sustaining an erection (also referred to as impotence).

Hematuria – Blood in the urine.

Hydronephrosis – Swelling at the top of the ureter, usually caused by an obstruction preventing the flow of urine into or out of the bladder.

Hypercalciuria – Overabundance of calcium in the urine.

Hyperoxaluria – Overabundance of oxalate in the urine, ultimately causing kidney stones.

Hypospadias – A congenital abnormality in which the opening of the urethra is located on the underside of the penis instead of at the tip.

Impotence – See erectile dysfunction.

Incontinence – The involuntary excretion of urine or feces.

Interstitial Cystitis (IC) – Sometimes called painful bladder syndrome, IC is a swelling of the bladder wall leading to scarring, decreased capacity, and in some cases, ulceration of the bladder lining.

Kegel Exercises – The clenching and relaxing of the muscles that hold urine in the bladder and the bladder in its proper position. Some women can overcome urinary incontinence this way.

Kidney Stone – An obstruction caused by a build-up of crystals in the urine. Usually occurs on the inner surfaces of the kidney, the renal pelvis, or in the ureters.

Lithotripsy – A procedure to break up kidney stones through the use of shock waves or other means.

Microhaematuria – Blood in the urine in quantities too small to be seen except with an electron microscope.

Micturition – Urination.

Nephrolithiasis – Kidney stones.

Nephrotic Syndrome – The presence of high protein levels in the urine, lack of protein in the blood, and high blood cholesterol, leading to kidney damage.

Neurogenic Bladder – A loss of bladder control due to nerve damage.

Overactive Bladder (OAB) – A urinary control disorder caused by an involuntary contraction of the muscle in the bladder wall.

Oxalate – A chemical which, in combination with calcium in urine, makes up the most common type of kidney stone (calcium oxalate stone).

Pelvic Floor Muscles – Muscles that support the bladder and play a role in urinary control.

Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy – A minimally invasive surgical method for removing kidney stones through a small incision in the back.

Pessary – A device inserted into the vagina to hold the bladder in position and prevent leakage of urine.

Peyronie’s Disease – Characterized by a curve or bend in the penis, Peyronie’s is caused by the presence of a plaque (or hardened area) which prevents the area from stretching during erection.

Prostate Gland – A walnut-sized gland located in front of the male bladder that plays a role in the production of semen. The prostate gland is essential for healthy sexual function.

Proteinuria – An overabundance of protein in the urine indicating that the kidneys are not functioning properly.

Pyelonephritis – An infection that begins in the urinary tract and spreads to the kidneys. Pyelonephritis usually responds to antibiotics.

Spermatic Ducts – A network of passages in which sperm are stored and transported from the testes into the urethra.

Struvite Stone – A type of kidney stone associated with urinary tract infections.

Teratozoospermia – The presence of abnormally shaped sperm in the ejaculate. This is a common cause of infertility in men.

Transurethral – Refers to surgical procedures conducted through the urethra.

Urea – A by-product of the breakdown of protein in the liver. Urea is normally removed from the blood by the kidneys and passed through urine.

Ureteroscope – A device which enables visibility of the bladder and ureters and the removal of kidney stones through the urethra (ureteroscopy).

Ureters – Passages that enable the movement of urine from the kidneys into the bladder.

Urethra – The passage through which urine travels from the bladder to be expelled from the body.

Urethritis – An inflammation of the urethra.

Urge Incontinence – An overwhelming need to pass urine caused by an involuntary contraction of the bladder.

Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) – An infection caused by the presence of bacteria in the urinary tract.

Uric Acid Stone – A type of kidney stone that may be caused by a diet high in animal protein, a metabolic disorder, or a disease such as diabetes or gout.

Urodynamic Test – A way to measure the bladder’s ability to hold and release urine. This test is often recommended for patients with symptoms of urinary incontinence.

Uroflow Test – A way to measure the volume and speed with which urine flows out of the body, used to detect the presence of an obstruction.

Urolithiasis – The presence of stones in the urinary tract.

Urostomy – A surgical opening and insertion of a tube into the urinary tract to allow urine to drain when voiding through the urethra is not possible.

Varicocele – A varicose vein of the testicle which usually occurs on the left side and can impair reproductive health in men.

Vesicoureteral Reflux – An abnormality in which urine flows back into the ureters and occasionally into the kidneys, raising the risk of infection.

Voiding Cystourethrogram – An x-ray image of the bladder and urethra made during the act of urination. The bladder and urethra are injected with a colored fluid for visibility.

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